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Exegesis of Romans 8:1-8


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Introduction

The Epistle to the Romans, chapter 8, verses 1-8[1] covers a portion of passages (vv. 1-39) that describe the reality of the Holy Spirit in us, and what that reality means for us as far as our relationship with God is concerned, and how “the Holy Spirit operates in enabling the believer to defeat the forces of evil.”[2] In this paper, I will use the exegetical method described in A Handbook of New Testament Exegesis[3] to derive the meaning of the listed passage as closely as possible to what the author intended when it was originally written (the autograph).[4]

Exegesis Defined

There are both short and extended definitions for the term exegesis. Rather than give every authors definition, I will attempt to create a combined explanation of the various interpretations of the word. Exegesis is derived, depending on whom you ask, either from two Greek words, or one. The two words are “ἐξ (‘from, of, out of’) and ἄγω (‘to lead’), referring to the process of leading out from a text its original meaning.”[5] The single Greek word that exegesis is said to have come from is ἐξηγέομαι, which means, “to lead out of.” What does it mean to “lead out of” a text?

Exegesis is the process by which we draw-out the meaning of the text as it was intended by the author for the original audience, and the derviation of principles from that meaning, which we apply to our current, everyday life.

Why Romans 8:1-8?

Paul’s story is one of complete redemption and foundational character change solely for the glory of God. Paul’s calling to preach the Gospel of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles means that Chirst sent him specifically to share the truth of salvation with us. The visions, the ensite, and all the Spirit inspired writings of Paul are meant for us, the non-Jew. Paul’s deep understanding of the Septuagent and Hebrew Pentetauch, and his zealous belief in Judeism ensure us that his writings are filled with links to the Old Testament, and deper, fuller understandings of their relation to New Testament beliefs. It is Paul whom argues against placing the yoke of the Mosaic Law onto the shoulders of new, Gentile believers. Paul relay’s both his arguments against works and his direction and teaching to new believers through his letters or epistles to the churches. One of these leters is to the church in Rome. There is no dispute that Paul is the author of Romans. “That the Epistle to the Romans was written by the apostle Paul is a proposition which it is unnecessary to discuss because it is not in dispute.”[6] The epistle itself cites Paul as its author.

The importance of Romans can be understood from reading it, and from observing its use in the works of other writers. Verses and passages from the epistle are found in the writings of the church fathers including Clement of Rome and Augustine as well as the books and letters of Luther and Wesley. Romans 8, in particular, is important in that it explains the mystery of the Holy Spirit, it’s dwelling in us, and the meaning of such a truth for the life of a believer. Verses 1-8 assure us freedom from guilt, from the sentence of guilt, and the punishment that is carried out on the guilty. It also explains that we are free from the Laws of Moses that convicted us of our sin, and sentence us with death. Paul explains that we are now under the law of Life and Peace found in Jesus Christ. He also explains how we are to walk in that life rather than our previous worldly ways. To better understand this message, we will perform the steps of exegesis on the passage to derive the meaning, as close as possible, of what Paul intended when he first wrote Romans. We will then draw out principles from the text and describe ways that we can apply them in daily life.

Textual Criticism

Our first step in exegesis is to determine the source documents behind the translations we wish to understand and the reliability of those documents. Thankfully, textual-critics accomplished this work for us by analyzing copies of original manuscripts (known as autographs) “in order to determine, as best as possible, the exact wording of an original text that is either undiscovered or no longer exists.”[7] Textual-critics have organized copies into text-types, which are groupings based on distinguishing characteristics found in the copies. There are three text-types, AlexandrianWestern, and Byzantine. After describing each, we will follow Bloomberg and Markley’s method of reasoned eclecticism, which takes into account the texts history of transmission, to make our text-critical decision. The decision on which text-type will show us which translation we will use for our exegesis.

Alexandrian Text-Type

In 331 B.C., Alexander the Great established the city, and scholastic epicenter of the time, Alexandria, Egypt. His general, Ptolemy, commissioned the building of a vast library filled with nearly 500,000 volumes[8] from across the empire. The culture of learning and classical scholarship in Alexandria remained strong throughout New Testament times and is said to be “the birthplace of the Septuagint,”[9] according to the Letter of Aristeas.[10] Christian scribes that may have copied some of the biblical texts would have been influenced by Alexandrian scriptoral practices. The Alexandrian text-type originated in this region and is known for the copying traditions “meticulous care and accuracy.”[11] The Alexandrian text-type also has early dating from the second century A.D.

Western Text-Type

The Western text-type is often quoted by the church fathers giving it early dating in the second century like the Alexandrian texts. The drawback of this text-type is that the scribes who copied the autographs often paraphrased passages, harmonized with other texts, and added to or excluded portions of the text in order to clarify or explain its possible meaning. “Western scribes felt free to smooth out the rough edges and add further clarification to the text, especially in the book of Acts, in ways that the Alexandrian tradition did not.[12]

Byzantine Text-Type

The Byzantine text-type is often argued to be the best source of original text because it has the most resources at 80% of all existing manuscripts. Quantity does not always mean quality and in the case of the Byzantine text tradition, this is especially true as the copyists “worked to conflate preexisting divergent readings by expanding the text and smoothing out difficulties.[13] These texts were copied and distributed throughout the Byzantine Empire becoming the dominant Greek text-type. It is the youngest text-type and there is no evidence of this tradition before the fourth century. [14]

Text-Critical Decision

As we can see from the description of each text-type , the Alexandrian tradition is the most accurate. Romans is a New Testament epistle and “99 percent of the original Greek New Testament can be reconstructed beyond any reasonable doubt.”[15] In the late, nineteenth and early twentieth century several translations of the New Testament were published taking into account newly discovered documents that were not available to the authors of earlier translations of the Bible. “Eberhard Nestlé’s version was outstanding among these texts because of its careful work with the various text types and its critical apparatus.”[16] It is for this reason that the majority of this exegesis will be based in the Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece, 28th Edition (NA28).[17] This particular translation is founded in Alexandrian text-type manuscripts. I will use other versions of the Bible in the next section where we will compare various translations from the different translation types.

Translation Comparison

When discussing versions of the Bible, we must consider the translators philosophy. Was the intent to translate “words” or “meaning”? According to William D. Mounce, there are two ways to translate, “[y]ou can either translate words, or you can translate meaning.”[18] When translating words the translator is doing so with grammatical formal equivalence, meaning it attempts to match the number and grammatical type of each word where possible. Translating for words is called formal equivalence. When translating meaning, the translator is less concerned with grammar and word count and more focused on relaying what he believes the authors intended message is. This translation type, in its extreme, uses paraphrasing as found in The Message.[19] Translation for meaning is known as functional equivalence. I will compare Romans 8: 1-8 in the English Standard Version (ESV)[20] from formal equivalence, the Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)[21] from the mid or optimal equivalence range, and The Message (MSG)[22] from functional equivalence (See Appendix A).

The first, most obvious difference in the three translations is their pericope sets (the section titles). The HCSB titles this section “The Life-Giving Spirit,” the ESV calls it “Life in the Spirit,” and the MSG entitles the section “The Solution is Life on God’s Terms.” There are also significant differences in word-count and number of paragraphs in each translation. The HCSB uses the fewest words, 175, to convey this scripture to the reader, and it compiles them into one paragraph. Second is the ESV, also one paragraph, with 184 words. The MSG uses four paragraphs and 315 words for the passage. [23] All are fairly consistent in relaying the same point that those whom are found in, or belong to Christ Jesus, are no longer condemned.

Both the BCSB and ESV keep close translations of the Greek words, while the MSG focuses on translating the basic meaning behind the passage. The paraphrasing is quite obvious in the MSG. The intended audience for each translation also differs. The ESV seems to focus on an audience whom has a deeper understanding of scripture and the truth of salvation. The HCSB attempts to clarify some verses to help, probably newer Christians, understand these deeper concepts. For example, where the ESV says, “By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh, 4 in order that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit” (Rom 8:3-4, ESV),[24] the HCSB says, “He condemned sin in the flesh by sending His own Son in flesh like ours under sin’s domain, and as a sin offering, in order that the law’s requirement would be accomplished in us who do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit” (Rom 8:3-4, HCSB).[25] The HCSB moves away from formal equivalence towards functional equivalence, but only enough to present the text in a more understandable way. The MSG is a complete rewrite, probably for those whom have a less sophisticated mastery of the English language or are not familiar with Christianity. “In his Son, Jesus, he personally took on the human condition, entered the disordered mess of struggling humanity in order to set it right once and for all. The law code, weakened as it always was by fractured human nature, could never have done that” (Rom 8:3, MSG).[26] In addition, in verse three the translations handle the “law weakened by the flesh” differently. All attempt to convey that the sinful nature of the flesh corrupted the Law. This is implicit in the ESV, “[f]or God has done what the law, weakened by the flesh, could not do” (Rom 8:3, ESV).[27] The HCSB attempts to clarify the principle by changing word order, but does nit seem to add much value to the translation here, “What the law could not do since it was limited by the flesh, God did.” The MSG is explicit with the translation, “The law code, weakened as it always was by fractured human nature, could never have done that”(Rom 8:3, MSG). [28] The Law of Moses condemns us. It makes us aware of our inability to keep the law. It shows us the truth of our need for Christ Jesus. The MSG attempts to fill out the story in an attempt to clarify the message by referring back to truths found in chapter seven. This is an effort to keep readers from misunderstanding the point. This passage is a foundational teaching in Christianity and there does not appear to be any theological bias in the translations.

The HCSB and ESV have the advantage when it comes to word study and comparison to the original Greek. The form and function remain very similar to the Greek texts. The translations leave the text open, but not ambiguous, so the reader can study, and pray over the passage to draw out the intended meaning. The English language level and grammatical structure can be disadvantageous for non-English speakers or those young in the faith. The HCSB is a little more neutral and uses more language that is modern. For non-Christians, children, or those whom English is their second language, the MSG is appropriate, but moves far from the more literal translation, choosing its own words, paraphrasing, and even using modern euphemisms to relay the message.

Historical-Cultural Context

In order to properly exegete the passage, we need to look at the historical and cultural period in which the book was written to determine what effects that had on the meaning of the text. Who is the author? What audience is he writing to? When and for what purpose was this written? What is the provenance and setting of the text? What do we need to consider in regards to sociology and cultural anthropology? The answers to these questions will, most likely, affect the meaning of the text.

Author

As stated above, the text claims its author to be Paul. In the greeting it says,

Paul, a slave of Christ Jesus, called as an apostle and singled out for God’s good news — which He promised long ago through His prophets in the Holy Scriptures— concerning His Son, Jesus Christ our Lord, who was a descendant of David according to the flesh and who has been declared to be the powerful Son of God by the resurrection from the dead according to the Spirit of holiness (Rom 1:1-4).[29]

Paul was previously known as Saul of Tarsus. He was a zealous Pharisee and persecutor of the early church. He was “5 circumcised on the eighth day, of the people of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; as to the law, a Pharisee; 6 as to zeal, a persecutor of the church; as to righteousness under the law, blameless” (Phil 3:5-6, ESV).[30] According to Acts, Paul is a Roman citizen (22:27-28, ESV), born in Tarsus, in Cilicia and raised, educated by Gamaliel, in Jerusalem (22:3, ESV). Paul was a tentmaker by trade (18:1-3, ESV). Paul did not walk with Jesus as one of his disciples, but later encountered the resurrected Christ on the road to Damascus and was converted on the spot (9:1-19, ESV). Before his conversion, Paul persecuted the church, and was present when Stephen was martyred (7:59–8:3). As a Pharisee, Paul was a part of “[a]n important Jewish sect at the time of Jesus that was devoted to exact observance of the Jewish religion.”[31] The Pharisees were considered the custodians of the Law of Moses. Therefore, Paul was deeply familiar with the Torah, and most likely, the Septuagint. This deep understanding of what we call the Old Testament would make Paul something of a scholar, and qualified to discern Old Testament prophecies and teachings that dealt with the coming Messiah. With the direction and influence of the Holy Spirit, Paul was unique in his ability to argue against placing the burden of the Law of Moses on the shoulders of new, Gentile believers. Paul planted many churches and corresponded with them through letters; Romans is one such letter.

Audience

Paul’s letter is addressed to the church in Rome, a city on the Tiber River in Italy, and the capital of the Roman Empire. This church was a group of Christians who met in as a group in the city of Rome; many are addressed by name and a few are given a laudatory greeting, liken to a public complement, which “would result in the individual’s being accorded respect in the community. But it also classed the person with Paul.”[32] (Figure 1):

Biblical People Diagrams

Figure 1: Final Greetings in Romans (Ro 16:1–16)[33] An illustration showing salutations given by Paul in his letter to the Romans, and the laudatory greetings.

The salutations are surprisingly numerous when we recall that Paul had never been to Rome. He greets 26 individuals (24 by name) and five households or house churches. He speaks of three “fellow-workers”, two “fellow-prisoners”, three people whom he calls “beloved”, and a lady he greets as his mother.[34]

Ampliatus, beloved in the Lord; Andronicus, a kinsman and fellow worker of Paul; Apelles, in the Lord; Aquila, worker in the Lord; Aristobulus and his household; Epaenetus, Paul’s first convert in Asia; Herodian, a kinsman and fellow worker of Paul; Junia, a kinsman and fellow worker of Paul; Mary, worker in the Lord; Narcissus and his household, in the Lord; Persis, beloved in the Lord; Priscilla, Aquila’ wife and worker in the Lord; Rufus, in the Lord; Stachys, beloved in the Lord; Tryphaena, worker in the Lord; Tryphosa, worker in the Lord; and Urbanus, worker in the Lord. Asyncritus, Hermas, Hermes, Julia, Nereus, Olympas, Patrobas, Philologus, and Phlegon were greeted by name without a special title. Perhaps, this is because they did not personally know Paul.

Date and Provenance

Dating this letter with any precision is quite difficult, however, there are clues that can give us the general time period in which Paul may have written it. If, as you will see below, the letter was written from Corinth, then we can look in Acts where it says that Paul was taken before the Proconsulship of Gallio (18:12, ESV). The Delphi or Gallio Inscription (Figure 2) says that Gallio was in office in A. D. 52. Augustus divided the Roman provinces into imperial and senatorial in 27 B. C. Peaceful areas that did not need force of arms to keep control were assigned to the senate. “In the senatorial provinces, a proconsul was appointed by lot every year by the senators.”[35] Sometimes a proconsul’s term would be extended to two year, so depending on when the inscription about Gallius was made, it would mean that Paul wrote this letter between A. D. 50–54.

Gallio Inscription

Figure 2: Gallio Inscription. “Some fragments of an inscription were discovered in Delphi at the beginning of the 20th century CE. This inscription was mentioned by Gallio, proconsul of the province Achaia, where Paul was put on trial. The dated stone provides an important clue for the chronology of the epistles of Paul (Acts 18:12; 18:14; 18:17).”[36]

The letter does not say outright where Paul was located at the time of its writing, but there are clues given to his location. “Paul commends Phoebe, a lady from Cenchraea, the port of that city” [37] of Corinth (Ro 16:1, ESV). Paul’s host at the time of writing was Gaius (Ro 16:23, ESV). Gaius is a man that Paul baptized in Corinth (1 Cor 1:14). “Erastus, Timothy, and Sopater were with Paul when Romans was written (Ro 16:21,23) and also in Greece (Acts 19:22; 20:2-4).”[38] Erastus was a city treasurer, most likely of Corinth, who aided Paul (Ro 16:23). At the time of writing, Paul was on his way to Jerusalem to provide aid to the church there (Ro 15:24-26, 28). “All this makes it conclusive that Paul was writing from Corinth just before he travelled to Jerusalem.”[39]

Purpose and Setting

As the first missionary of the Christian church, Paul travelled to and established organic churches, in cities that permitted the spread of the gospel to entire regions. Paul spoke of provinces, not cities. “Paul’s theory of evangelizing a province was not to preach in every place in it himself, but to establish centres [sic] of Christian life in two or three important places from which the knowledge might spread into the country around.”[40] What better place to plant or support a growing church than the center of the civilized world? In the case of Paul’s letter to the Romans, there is a church in Rome already, and it has a mix of members, both Jewish and Roman. As Paul is the Apostle to the Gentiles, it is his responsibility to communicate with, and visit the church there. Paul starts his letter by attempting to ensure that the Jews and Gentiles of the church were united. “In other words, he exhibits the gospel in its eminent fitness to comprehend Jews and Gentiles in a common necessity of salvation, and to build them up, on the common ground of salvation, into a community of faith which would combine in perfect harmony both a theocratic purpose and a universal spirit.”[41] There seem, however, to be multiple purposes in Paul’s letter. In 1:1-15 and 15:14–16:27, he asks for prayer for his mission to deliver money to the church in Jerusalem and then talks of preparation for his visit to Rome and his follow-on mission to Spain. Due to Paul’s argument throughout Romans that salvation if or both Jew and Gentile, the purpose of his letter could be viewed as an attempt to place apostolic organization on the church there as its attendees were Romans, and Roman Jews who had been given permission to return after being expelled by Claudius. The Jewish members may have “found that the Christian house churches in Rome had developed a form of organization quite different from the synagogal form they had when they left.”[42] Paul’s purpose may have been to urge the Gentiles to live harmoniously with their Jewish counterparts.

Literary Context

Having looked at the historical and cultural aspects surrounded Paul’s letter, we need to move our focus to the literary context of the passage we intend to exegete. We will look at the passage itself, along with specific words within the verses, and move out to the context of the chapter, book, testament, and so-forth to ensure that we discover the meaning as intended by the author. We will stop our expansion at the point where we first discover it so that context not found near the passage will not skew its meaning.

Figures of Speech

The verses for our passage are 1-8. In verse one, there are differences in the translations. The ESV ends the verse with “in Christ Jesus,” and the HCSB adds, “who do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit.” This phrase is added to clarify “who” is in Christ Jesus, and alludes to the figures of speech Paul uses from verse four and on. “Many (Metzger[43], Omanson,[44] Comfort[45]) point to Rom 8:4 as influence for later scribal inclusion of these phrases.”[46]

Distinctive Literary Forms and Genre

The traditional literary form and genre of Romans is a personal letter of introduction, a letter to a community. It was addressed to the church in Rome and would have been read aloud to the congregation. “Letter, Community — (NT) A letter sent to a Christian community to instruct, advise, and encourage the congregation.”[47] It was written in Greek as a single letter.

Overall Species of Rhetoric

Many commentaries conduct rhetorical analysis of the New Testament books, especially Paul’s letters. This type of analysis comes from the ancient rhetorical handbooks of Aristotle, Quintilian, and Cicero. This approach is used the in the field of rhetorical criticism. The Epistle to the Romans has been identified as epideictic. “Other interpreters have opted to speak of Romans in light of ancient rhetorical models, saying that Romans is an epideictic (or demonstrative) letter, in which an orator or author celebrates values held in common between the addressee and himself.”[48]

Disputed Words with Word Studies

The passage that we are viewing in Romans 8 does not have any abundance of disputed words across translations. In verse two, ἠλευθέρωσέν σε is recorded in some early manuscripts as saying “has set you free,” with other early manuscripts “later related witnesses have ‘has set me free.’”[49]

The main theme of verses 1-8 is that there is no condemnation. This thesis is put forth in verse 1 and the rest of the verses describe who and how there is no condemnation. For a complete word study, see Appendix C. I used The Greek-English Interlinear New Testament[50] to find the Greek word, which is κατάκριμα. This word is transliterated as katakrima. The Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament identifies katakrima as a neuter noun and gives a semantic range of condemnation, sentence of doom, and punishment.[51] Teknia identifies a similar semantic range of punishment, condemnation, or a condemning sentence. It also provides the Strong’s number G2631.[52] Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance adds judgment and an adverse sentence (the verdict) to the semantic range. Theyer also lists damnatory sentence[53] in the semantic range with Vine’s Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words lending the sentence pronounced.[54]

Katakrima is defined “as a legal technical term for the result of judging, including both the sentence and its execution”[55] or “punishment following condemnation, penal servitude, penalty.”[56] Looking at the word in the particular context as found in v.1 it appears to be defined as “the action of condemning someone to a punishment; sentencing.”[57] There are only two other passages in the Bible that contain katakrima; they are Romans 5:16 and 18. I reviewed these passages, which use katakrima when discussing Adam and the condemnation brought on humanity from his sin. “And the gift is not like the result of that one man’s sin; for the judgment following the one transgression led to condemnation.” “Therefore, just as one man’s transgression brought condemnation for all so also one man’s righteous act brought justification and life for all.” An analysis of the story of Adam reveals that he was not only judged, but that the sentence was carried out. Adam and Eve were expelled from Eden, toiled, and struggled to bring forth life from the ground, and Eve suffered in childbirth. I must agree with the Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament that the correct definition for this word in its Biblical context is defined “as a legal technical term for the result of judging, including both the sentence and its execution”[58]

Grammar

A grammatical analysis of the Greek will tell us what words were important and how they affect the meaning of each verse. In verse one, no is an adjective modifying condemnation. These words share the same case number and gender: nominative, singular, and neuter. The nominative case in Greek is the same as the subjective case in English. This means that the word condemnation in verse one is the subject of the verb is. Paul’s comment about condemnation is present tense, because he uses the temporal adverb now just before he writes no condemnation. The Greek word here modifies the adjective no. A temporal adverb is “[a]n adverb which modifies the modifié with reference to time or timing.”[59] In this case, the timing is now. We must note that in Greek, it is not the word order that identifies the case, but a suffix added to the stem of the noun that signifies its case. As I have not yet learned biblical Greek, I must rely on a tool such as a lexicon. The Greek word for condemnation is katakrima. This word is a noun, and its gender is neuter. “A noun is either masculine, feminine, or neuter. It has only one gender and it never varies.”[60] Condemnation is also singular, meaning this one thing. For a full listing of grammar for verses 1-8, see the word studies in Appendix C.

Outlining, Phrasing, or Block Diagram

After analyzing Romans 8:1-8 following Mounce’s Bible study method he calls “phrasing”[61] (See Appendix B), I discovered that the main theme is that there is no condemnation. The rest of the passage supports this theme and explains to the reader who and why. I focused my previous word study and grammatical analysis on the English word condemnation, which a majority of translations use. The Message was the only translation that did not use condemnation, but paraphrased the intended meaning.

Contemporary Application

Exegesis to determine meaning of a passage is useless unless we draw out a principle from the text and apply it to our life. In collating and analyzing all of the information presented in this paper, we understand that Paul wanted to make it clear that there is no condemnation, no judgment, or punishment for those who are found in Christ Jesus. To be in Christ Jesus, we must be in the Spirit rather than in the flesh. The Spirit he speaks of is the indwelling Holy Spirit. By surrendering completely every aspect of our will, and submitting our entire being to the control, guidance, and teaching of the Spirit, we live life in the Spirit. When we attempt to live under our own power, slaves to our desires, and emotions, we live in the flesh. Paul is talking about the focus of our life, of our mind. If we focus on whatever is true, “whatever is honorable, whatever is just, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is commendable, if there is any excellence, if there is anything worthy of praise” (Phil 4:8, ESV), we are focused on things of the Spirit. To focus on the Spirit is to live in the Spirit. To live in the Spirit is to have “life and peace” (Ro 8:6, ESV). It is of great interest that we note what type of life is spoken of in this verse. The Greek word is ζωὴ, which can be translated as life or existence. In Matthew 7 there are other Greek words used for life. One such word is ψυχ, transliterated as psyche and has to do with the soul or mind. This is the flesh. It is our conscious mind and if we try to live by what is in our mind and its desires, then we live by the flesh. When Jesus uses this word, He is speaking in verse thirty-nine saying, “Whoever finds his life (ψυχή) will lose it, and whoever loses his life (ψυχή) for my sake will find it” (Matt 10:39, ESV). If we are willing to die to our own mind and its desires then He will raise us up. In Luke, there is another Greek word that is translated life, and that is βίου. This is a biological form of life, the body. In 8:14, Luke says, “And that which fell among thorns are they, which, when they have heard, go forth, and are choked with cares and riches and pleasures of this life” (βίου).[62] If we will stop chasing after the pleasures, which satisfy the life (βίου) of our body, then we will be living in the Spirit. When Jesus speaks of the Father, and His life, and the life that flows from Him, He uses the word ζωὴ. ζωὴ is a depth of life, present now, and present eternally. If we would die to life (ψυχή), and life (βίου), then we would live life (ζωὴ) in the Spirit, and be raised into eternal life (ζωὴ).

Appendix A: Translation Comparisons

Romans 8:1-8 ESV (184 words, 1 paragraph)

1            There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus. For the law of the Spirit of life has set you free in Christ Jesus from the law of sin and death. 3 For God has done what the law, weakened by the flesh, could not do. By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh, 4 in order that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit. 5 For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit set their minds on the things of the Spirit. 6 For to set the mind on the flesh is death, but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace. 7 For the mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to God, for it does not submit to God’s law; indeed, it cannot. 8 Those who are in the flesh cannot please God.[63]

Romans 8:1-8, HCSB (175 words, 1 paragraph)

1            Therefore, no condemnation now exists for those in Christ Jesus, because the Spirit’s law of life in Christ Jesus has set you free from the law of sin and of death. What the law could not do since it was limited by the flesh, God did. He condemned sin in the flesh by sending His own Son in flesh like ours under sin’s domain, and as a sin offering, in order that the law’s requirement would be accomplished in us who do not walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit. For those who live according to the flesh think about the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit, about the things of the Spirit. For the mind-set of the flesh is death, but the mind-set of the Spirit is life and peace. For the mind-set of the flesh is hostile to God because it does not submit itself to God’s law, for it is unable to do so. Those who are in the flesh cannot please God.[64]

Romans 8:1-8 MSG (315 words, 3 paragraphs)

1-2     With the arrival of Jesus, the Messiah, that fateful dilemma is resolved. Those who enter into Christ’s being-here-for-us no longer have to live under a continuous, low-lying black cloud. A new power is in operation. The Spirit of life in Christ, like a strong wind, has magnificently cleared the air, freeing you from a fated lifetime of brutal tyranny at the hands of sin and death.

3-4        God went for the jugular when he sent his own Son. He didn’t deal with the problem as something remote and unimportant. In his Son, Jesus, he personally took on the human condition, entered the disordered mess of struggling humanity in order to set it right once and for all. The law code, weakened as it always was by fractured human nature, could never have done that.

The law always ended up being used as a Band-Aid on sin instead of a deep healing of it. And now what the law code asked for but we couldn’t deliver is accomplished as we, instead of redoubling our own efforts, simply embrace what the Spirit is doing in us.

5-8        Those who think they can do it on their own end up obsessed with measuring their own moral muscle but never get around to exercising it in real life. Those who trust God’s action in them find that God’s Spirit is in them—living and breathing God! Obsession with self in these matters is a dead end; attention to God leads us out into the open, into a spacious, free life. Focusing on the self is the opposite of focusing on God. Anyone completely absorbed in self ignores God, ends up thinking more about self than God. That person ignores who God is and what he is doing. And God isn’t pleased at being ignored.[65]

Appendix B: Outlining, Phrasing, or Block Diagram

Romans 8:1-8 KJV (182 words, 1 paragraph)

No condemnation

8:1 There is therefore now no condemnation

———————————–↓

———————————–to them which are {1}in Christ Jesus,

—————————————————————↓

———————————————————–who walk

——————————————————————↓

—————————————————————–not after the {2}flesh,

—————————————————————–{1}but after the Spirit.

Freedom from the Law

8:2 For the {1}law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free

——————————————————————————↓

—————————————————————————–from the {3}law

——————————————————————————————-↓

—————————————————————————————of sin and death.

Condemnation of sin

8:3 For what the {3}law could not do,

———————–↓

——————–in that it was weak

————————————-↓

———————————–{2}through the flesh,

God sending his own Son (a)→ . . . condemned {2}sin in the flesh(b)→

————————–↓

—————-(a)→. . . in the likeness of {2}sinful flesh, and for sin,

8:4 (b)→That the righteousness of the {3}law

————————–↓

——————–might be fulfilled in us,

——————————————-↓

——————————————who walk not after the {2}flesh,

——————————————but after the {1}Spirit.

The Flesh and the Spirit

8:5 For they that are {2}after the flesh

—————————————↓

————————————-do mind the things of the flesh;

{4}but they that are after the Spirit

———————————–↓

——————————–the things of the Spirit.

The Carnal Mind

8:6 For to be {2}carnally minded

—————————↓

———————–is death;

{4}but to be spiritually minded

————————↓

—————–is life and peace.

8:7Because the{2}carnal mind

—————————-↓

———————–is enmity against God:

———————–for it is not subject to the {3}law of God,

—————————————-↓

————————————neither indeed can be.

8:8 So then they that are {2}in the flesh

————————————↓

——————————–cannot please God.

Numbered items are running themes:

{1} In the Spirit; In Christ

{2} In the Flesh; Under the Mosaic Law

{3} Mosaic Law

—— added to post to hold spacing

→ Goes with; Go together

. . . Pulled from the order of the text

↓ connected with

Main Point

Sub Point

All else is supporting element of either sub points or main point.

Appendix C: Word Studies[66]

From The Swanson New Testament Greek Morphology (UBS 4th Edition)

Romans 8:1
Οὐδὲν ἄρα νῦν κατάκριμα τοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ.  | UBS4 w/Swanson There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus. | ESV

Οὐδὲν Ouden There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus

οὐδείς oudeis nothing; no; nobody

Adjective, nominative, singular, neuter

BDAG no; no one, nobody; nothing

DBL Greek no one, nothing

νῦν nyn There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus

νῦν nyn now

Adverb

Sense: now – at the present moment.

BDAG now; now, as it is

LTW now.

κατάκριμα katakrima There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus

κατάκριμα katakrima condemnation, penalty

Noun, nominative, singular, neuter

Sense: condemnation – a legal decision of guilty in a criminal case; often with the ensuing punishment understood.

BDAG condemnation, punishment, penalty

DBL Greek condemnation

Χριστῷ Christō There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus

Χριστός Christos Christ

Noun, dative, singular, masculine

BDAG the Anointed One, the Messiah, the Christ; Christ

Ἰησοῦ. Iēsou. There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus

Ἰησοῦς Iēsous Jesus/Joshua

Noun, dative, singular, masculine

BDAG Joshua/Jesus.; Joshua, successor of Moses; Jesus, son of Eliezer; Jesus Christ;

Romans 8:2
ὁ γὰρ νόμος τοῦ πνεύματος τῆς ζωῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ ἠλευθέρωσέν σε ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου τῆς ἁμαρτίας καὶ τοῦ θανάτου.  | UBS4 w/Swanson For the law of the Spirit of life has set you free in Christ Jesus from the law of sin and death | ESV

νόμος nomos For the law of the Spirit of life has set you free in Christ Jesus from the law of sin and death

νόμος nomos law

Noun, nominative, singular, masculine

Sense: principle ⇔ law – a rule or law concerning a natural phenomenon or the function of a complex system.

BDAG a custom, rule, principle, norm; law; sacred ordinance

LTW law, principle, custom.

πνεύματος pneumatos For the law of the Spirit of life has set you free in Christ Jesus from the law of sin and death

πνεῦμα pneuma spirit; breath

Noun, genitive, singular, neuter

BDAG blowing, breathing; breath, (life-)spirit; spirit; Spirit, spirit; the Spirit

LTW spirit, breath, wind.

ζωῆς zōēs For the law of the Spirit of life has set you free in Christ Jesus from the law of sin and death

ζωή zōē life

Noun, genitive, singular, feminine

Sense: life (state) – the condition of living or the state of being alive; especially healthiness, happiness, exuberance, energy, vitality, and the like.

BDAG life

LTW life.

Χριστῷ Christō For the law of the Spirit of life has set you free in Christ Jesus from the law of sin and death

Χριστός Christos Christ

Noun, dative, singular, masculine

BDAG the Anointed One, the Messiah, the Christ; Christ

Ἰησοῦ Iēsou For the law of the Spirit of life has set you free in Christ Jesus from the law of sin and death

Ἰησοῦς Iēsous Jesus/Joshua

Noun, dative, singular, masculine

BDAG Joshua/Jesus.; Joshua, successor of Moses; Jesus, son of Eliezer; Jesus Christ; Jesus Barabbas; Jesus/Justus

νόμου nomou For the law of the Spirit of life has set you free in Christ Jesus from the law of sin and death

νόμος nomos law

Noun, genitive, singular, masculine

Sense: principle ⇔ law – a rule or law concerning a natural phenomenon or the function of a complex system.

BDAG a custom, rule, principle, norm; law; sacred ordinance

LTW law, principle, custom.

ἁμαρτίας hamartias For the law of the Spirit of life has set you free in Christ Jesus from the law of sin and death

ἁμαρτία hamartia sin

Noun, genitive, singular, feminine

Sense: sin (personification) – sin personified as a destructive and depraved principle reigning over unbelievers and persisting in believers; especially as a slavemaster doling out payment with the currency of death and decay.

BDAG sin; sinfulness

LTW sin, an act of wrongdoing, guilt.

θανάτου. thanatou. For the law of the Spirit of life has set you free in Christ Jesus from the law of sin and death

θάνατος thanatos death

Noun, genitive, singular, masculine

Sense: death (event) – the event of dying or departure from life.

BDAG death; fatal illness, pestilence

LTW death.

Romans 8:3
τὸ γὰρ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου ἐν ᾧ ἠσθένει διὰ τῆς σαρκός, ὁ θεὸς τὸν ἑαυτοῦ υἱὸν πέμψας ἐν ὁμοιώματι σαρκὸς ἁμαρτίας καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας κατέκρινεν τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἐν τῇ σαρκί,  | UBS4 w/Swanson For God has done what the law, weakened by the flesh, could not do. By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh | ESV

ἀδύνατον adynaton For God has done what the law weakened by the flesh could not do By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin he condemned sin in the flesh

ἀδύνατον adynaton impossible; powerless

Adjective, accusative, singular, neuter

Sense: inability – lacking the power to perform (some action or purpose).

BDAG powerless, impotent; impossible

DBL Greek incapable; impossible

νόμου nomou For God has done what the law weakened by the flesh could not do By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin he condemned sin in the flesh

νόμος nomos law

Noun, genitive, singular, masculine

Sense: Mosaic law system – the Torah understood as the system of laws, civil statutes, and priestly ordinances comprising the Mosaic covenant; especially understood as the means of earning God’s favor.

BDAG a custom, rule, principle, norm; law; sacred ordinance

LTW law, principle, custom.

σαρκός, sarkos, For God has done what the law weakened by the flesh could not do By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin he condemned sin in the flesh

σάρξ sarx flesh; body

Noun, genitive, singular, feminine

Sense: sinful humanity ⇔ flesh – the physical aspect of a person in distinction to the immaterial soul; often understood as the seat of sin and rebellion to God.

BDAG flesh; body, physical body; living being with flesh; human/mortal nature, earthly descent

LTW flesh.

 

θεὸς theos For God has done what the law weakened by the flesh could not do By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin he condemned sin in the flesh

θεός theos God; god

Noun, nominative, singular, masculine

BDAG deity, god, goddess; God; god

Josephus: Index

υἱὸν huion For God has done what the law weakened by the flesh could not do By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin he condemned sin in the flesh

υἱός huios son

Noun, accusative, singular, masculine

BDAG son, offspring, descendant; son; foal; descendant, son; son(s) of; son of David; (the) Son of God; the Human One, the Human Being

LTW son.

ὁμοιώματι homoiōmati For God has done what the law weakened by the flesh could not do By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin he condemned sin in the flesh

ὁμοίωμα homoiōma image; likeness

Noun, dative, singular, neuter

Sense: similarity – the quality of being similar (to something).

BDAG likeness; image, form

DBL Greek similarity

σαρκὸς sarkos For God has done what the law weakened by the flesh could not do By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin he condemned sin in the flesh

σάρξ sarx flesh; body

Noun, genitive, singular, feminine

Sense: humanity ⇔ flesh – human nature understood by the soft tissue (or the physical body) that makes up humankind.

BDAG flesh; body, physical body; living being with flesh; human/mortal nature, earthly descent

LTW flesh.

ἁμαρτίας hamartias For God has done what the law weakened by the flesh could not do By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin he condemned sin in the flesh

ἁμαρτία hamartia sin

Noun, genitive, singular, feminine

Sense: sin (personification) – sin personified as a destructive and depraved principle reigning over unbelievers and persisting in believers; especially as a slavemaster doling out payment with the currency of death and decay.

BDAG sin; sinfulness

LTW sin, an act of wrongdoing, guilt.

ἁμαρτίας hamartias For God has done what the law weakened by the flesh could not do By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin he condemned sin in the flesh

ἁμαρτία hamartia sin

Noun, genitive, singular, feminine

Sense: sin (personification) – sin personified as a destructive and depraved principle reigning over unbelievers and persisting in believers; especially as a slavemaster doling out payment with the currency of death and decay.

BDAG sin; sinfulness

LTW sin, an act of wrongdoing, guilt.

ἁμαρτίαν hamartian For God has done what the law weakened by the flesh could not do By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin he condemned sin in the flesh

ἁμαρτία hamartia sin

Noun, accusative, singular, feminine

Sense: sin (personification) – sin personified as a destructive and depraved principle reigning over unbelievers and persisting in believers; especially as a slavemaster doling out payment with the currency of death and decay.

BDAG sin; sinfulness

LTW sin, an act of wrongdoing, guilt.

σαρκί, sarki, For God has done what the law weakened by the flesh could not do By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin he condemned sin in the flesh

σάρξ sarx flesh; body

Noun, dative, singular, feminine

Sense: humanity ⇔ flesh – human nature understood by the soft tissue (or the physical body) that makes up humankind.

BDAG flesh; body, physical body; living being with flesh; human/mortal nature, earthly descent

LTW flesh.

Romans 8:4
ἵνα τὸ δικαίωμα τοῦ νόμου πληρωθῇ ἐν ἡμῖν τοῖς μὴ κατὰ σάρκα περιπατοῦσιν ἀλλὰ κατὰ πνεῦμα.  | UBS4 w/Swanson in order that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit | ESV

δικαίωμα dikaiōma in order that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us who walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit

δικαίωμα dikaiōma regulation; righteous deed

Noun, nominative, singular, neuter

Sense: righteous requirement – that which is required to satisfy the morally just demands of something; especially understood as if a singular command.

BDAG regulation, requirement, commandment; righteous deed

LTW regulation, requirement, righteous deed.

νόμου nomou in order that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us who walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit

νόμος nomos law

Noun, genitive, singular, masculine

Sense: law of God – any representative declaration of God’s legal requirements for His creatures; whether in Scripture or in the conscience.

BDAG a custom, rule, principle, norm; law; sacred ordinance

LTW law, principle, custom.

μὴ mē in order that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us who walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit

μή mē not

Adverb

BDAG not; that…(not), lest; so that…not; ‘it isn’t so, is it, that …?’; whether…not

DBL Greek not; marker of a question; so that not

 

σάρκα sarka in order that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us who walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit

σάρξ sarx flesh; body

Noun, accusative, singular, feminine

Sense: sinful humanity ⇔ flesh – the physical aspect of a person in distinction to the immaterial soul; often understood as the seat of sin and rebellion to God.

BDAG flesh; body, physical body; living being with flesh; human/mortal nature, earthly descent

LTW flesh.

πνεῦμα. pneuma. in order that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us who walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit

πνεῦμα pneuma spirit; breath

Noun, accusative, singular, neuter

BDAG blowing, breathing; breath, (life-)spirit; spirit; Spirit, spirit; the Spirit

LTW spirit, breath, wind.

Romans 8:5
οἱ γὰρ κατὰ σάρκα ὄντες τὰ τῆς σαρκὸς φρονοῦσιν, οἱ δὲ κατὰ πνεῦμα τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος.  | UBS4 w/Swanson For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit set their minds on the things of the Spirit | ESV

σάρκα sarka For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh but those who live according to the Spirit set their minds on the things of the Spirit

σάρξ sarx flesh; body

Noun, accusative, singular, feminine

Sense: sinful humanity ⇔ flesh – the physical aspect of a person in distinction to the immaterial soul; often understood as the seat of sin and rebellion to God.

BDAG flesh; body, physical body; living being with flesh; human/mortal nature, earthly descent

LTW flesh.

 

σαρκὸς sarkos For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh but those who live according to the Spirit set their minds on the things of the Spirit

σάρξ sarx flesh; body

Noun, genitive, singular, feminine

Sense: sinful humanity ⇔ flesh – the physical aspect of a person in distinction to the immaterial soul; often understood as the seat of sin and rebellion to God.

BDAG flesh; body, physical body; living being with flesh; human/mortal nature, earthly descent

LTW flesh.

πνεῦμα pneuma For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh but those who live according to the Spirit set their minds on the things of the Spirit

πνεῦμα pneuma spirit; breath

Noun, accusative, singular, neuter

BDAG blowing, breathing; breath, (life-)spirit; spirit; Spirit, spirit; the Spirit

LTW spirit, breath, wind.

πνεύματος. pneumatos. For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh but those who live according to the Spirit set their minds on the things of the Spirit

πνεῦμα pneuma spirit; breath

Noun, genitive, singular, neuter

BDAG blowing, breathing; breath, (life-)spirit; spirit; Spirit, spirit; the Spirit

LTW spirit, breath, wind.

Romans 8:6
τὸ γὰρ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς θάνατος, τὸ δὲ φρόνημα τοῦ πνεύματος ζωὴ καὶ εἰρήνη∑  | UBS4 w/Swanson For to set the mind on the flesh is death, but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace | ESV

φρόνημα phronēma For to set the mind on the flesh is death but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace

φρόνημα phronēma way of thinking, mind

Noun, nominative, singular, neuter

Sense: mindset – a habitual or characteristic mental attitude that determines how you will interpret and respond to situations.

BDAG way of thinking, mind(-set)

DBL Greek mind

σαρκὸς sarkos For to set the mind on the flesh is death but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace

σάρξ sarx flesh; body

Noun, genitive, singular, feminine

Sense: sinful humanity ⇔ flesh – the physical aspect of a person in distinction to the immaterial soul; often understood as the seat of sin and rebellion to God.

BDAG flesh; body, physical body; living being with flesh; human/mortal nature, earthly descent

LTW flesh.

θάνατος, thanatos, For to set the mind on the flesh is death but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace

θάνατος thanatos death

Noun, nominative, singular, masculine

Sense: death (event) – the event of dying or departure from life.

BDAG death; fatal illness, pestilence

LTW death.

φρόνημα phronēma For to set the mind on the flesh is death but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace

φρόνημα phronēma way of thinking, mind

Noun, nominative, singular, neuter

Sense: mindset – a habitual or characteristic mental attitude that determines how you will interpret and respond to situations.

BDAG way of thinking, mind(-set)

DBL Greek mind

πνεύματος pneumatos For to set the mind on the flesh is death but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace

πνεῦμα pneuma spirit; breath

Noun, genitive, singular, neuter

BDAG blowing, breathing; breath, (life-)spirit; spirit; Spirit, spirit; the Spirit

LTW spirit, breath, wind.

 

ζωὴ zōē For to set the mind on the flesh is death but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace

ζωή zōē life

Noun, nominative, singular, feminine

Sense: life (state) – the condition of living or the state of being alive; especially healthiness, happiness, exuberance, energy, vitality, and the like.

BDAG life

LTW life.

εἰρήνη∑ eirēnē; For to set the mind on the flesh is death but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace

εἰρήνη eirēnē peace

Noun, nominative, singular, feminine

Sense: blessing of peace – a state of peace that is a blessing or favor from God.

BDAG peace, harmony; peace

Romans 8:7
διότι τὸ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς ἔχθρα εἰς θεόν, τῷ γὰρ νόμῳ τοῦ θεοῦ οὐχ ὑποτάσσεται, οὐδὲ γὰρ δύναται∑  | UBS4 w/Swanson For the mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to God, for it does not submit to God’s law; indeed, it cannot | ESV

φρόνημα phronēma For the mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to God for it does not submit to God’s law indeed it cannot

φρόνημα phronēma way of thinking, mind

Noun, nominative, singular, neuter

Sense: mindset – a habitual or characteristic mental attitude that determines how you will interpret and respond to situations.

BDAG way of thinking, mind(-set)

DBL Greek mind

 

σαρκὸς sarkos For the mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to God for it does not submit to God’s law indeed it cannot

σάρξ sarx flesh; body

Noun, genitive, singular, feminine

Sense: sinful humanity ⇔ flesh – the physical aspect of a person in distinction to the immaterial soul; often understood as the seat of sin and rebellion to God.

BDAG flesh; body, physical body; living being with flesh; human/mortal nature, earthly descent

LTW flesh.

ἔχθρα echthra For the mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to God for it does not submit to God’s law indeed it cannot

ἔχθρα echthra enmity

Noun, nominative, singular, feminine

Sense: hostility (state) – a state of deep-seated ill-will.

BDAG enmity

DBL Greek enmity

θεόν, theon, For the mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to God for it does not submit to God’s law indeed it cannot

θεός theos God; god

Noun, accusative, singular, masculine

BDAG deity, god, goddess; God; god

νόμῳ nomō For the mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to God for it does not submit to God’s law indeed it cannot

νόμος nomos law

Noun, dative, singular, masculine

Sense: law (collection) – a whole collected body of law; sometimes one or more of the five books of Moses and other times simply an unspecified set of laws.

BDAG a custom, rule, principle, norm; law; sacred ordinance

LTW law, principle, custom.

θεοῦ theou For the mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to God for it does not submit to God’s law indeed it cannot

θεός theos God; god

Noun, genitive, singular, masculine

BDAG deity, god, goddess; God; god

 

οὐχ ouch For the mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to God for it does not submit to God’s law indeed it cannot

οὐ ou not; no

Adverb

BDAG no; not; not so?

DBL Greek not; marker of a question

Romans 8:8
οἱ δὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ὄντες θεῷ ἀρέσαι οὐ δύνανται.  | UBS4 w/Swanson Those who are in the flesh cannot please God | ESV

σαρκὶ sarki Those who are in the flesh cannot please God

σάρξ sarx flesh; body

Noun, dative, singular, feminine

Sense: sinful humanity ⇔ flesh – the physical aspect of a person in distinction to the immaterial soul; often understood as the seat of sin and rebellion to God.

BDAG flesh; body, physical body; living being with flesh; human/mortal nature, earthly descent

LTW flesh.

θεῷ theō Those who are in the flesh cannot please God

θεός theos God; god

Noun, dative, singular, masculine

BDAG deity, god, goddess; God; god

οὐ ou Those who are in the flesh cannot please God

οὐ ou not; no

Adverb

BDAG no; not; not so?

DBL Greek not; marker of a question

 

Appendix D: Checklist for Doing Biblical Exegesis[67]

Textual Criticism (Chapter 1)

__ List any significant textual variants worth study.

__ Review the external evidence for each reading.

__  Select the reading with the strongest support (based on the combination of age, reliability, and quantity of manuscripts).

__ Review the internal evidence for each reading.

__  Identify the transcriptional evidence (which readings are more likely to have reflected scribal alterations).

__  Identify the intrinsic evidence (which readings the original author most likely wrote).

__  Select the reading most likely to have generated the other ones.

Translation and Translations (Chapter 2)

__ Translate the text.

__  For a literal translation, aim for formal equivalence or use the NASB, NRSV, ESV, or NKJV (be aware of the text-critical deficiencies of the NKJV).

__  For a fluent and understandable translation aim, for dynamic equivalence, or use the NLT, GNT, or (especially for British English) REB.

__  For the best balance between literal translation and fluent English, aim for a mediating position between fully formal and fully dynamic equivalence or use the TNIV, NIV, HCSB, NAB, or NJB.

Historical-Cultural Context (Chapter 3)

__  List the date, author, audience, location of author, circumstances of author, location of audience, and circumstances of audience for the passage.

__  List and research key concepts in the passage that will be significantly illuminated by further understanding of ancient Jewish and/or Greco-Roman history and culture.

Literary Context (Chapter 4)

__  Read the passages immediately preceding and following the one you are studying.

__ Evaluate how they impinge on the interpretation of your text.

__  Formulate a probable outline of the entire biblical book.

__  Locate your passage and its immediate context in the book’s overall narrative flow and discover any additional implications for interpreting your text.

__ Note any figures of speech or other literary devices that affect interpretation.

__  Consider plot, characterization, narrative time, climax, etc., to see if narrative criticism helps clarify any of the elements of the passage. 

Word Studies (Chapter 5)

__ Identify unusual, controversial, or theologically important words.

__  Determine each word’s range of meanings.

__  Consider classical Greek, the Septuagint, Hellenistic or Koine Greek, and the New Testament.

__  If the word occurs frequently in the author or book at hand, pay special attention to these uses.

__  Select the meaning that best fits in the context of your passage for each word.

Grammar (Chapter 6)

__  Identify unusual, controversial, or theologically important grammatical constructions.

__ List the range of solutions to each made by commentators, grammarians, etc.

__  Evaluate the arguments for and against the alternatives and identify the most probable classifications in the immediate contexts.

Interpretive Problems (Chapter 7)

__  Formulate the remaining, more synthetic, exegetical problems.

__  Determine which combination of the above steps permits a solution to each of these problems and perform the necessary exegetical study.

__ Use a process of elimination to narrow down to a preferred solution where multiple plausible solutions remain.

__  Look for the most agreed-on, straightforward exegetical decisions that can be made and use these to exclude less likely options.

__  Rank in order of probability the options that remain when an obvious solution does not emerge.

Outlining (Chapter 8)

__  Identify the number and location of complete sentences in your passage.

__  Make each sentence the main point of an outline.

__  If there are too many sentences for each to represent a main point of an outline, group them chronologically, thematically, or episodically. Subdivide from there until you get at least to the level of the individual sentence.

__  If there are too few sentences for each to represent a main point of an outline, subdivide according to the natural divisions of one or more of the sentences. Separate at the points where sentences combine independent clauses, and again at the next level for dependent clauses or prepositional phrases.

__ Create subpoints for the outline.

__  Subdivide according to the natural divisions of the sentence.

__  Separate at the points where sentences combine independent clauses, and again at the next level for dependent clauses or prepositional phrases.

__  Write the main points and subpoints in your own words and include the relevant verses contained in each part. 

Theology (Chapter 9)

__  List the categories of systematic theology about which your passage has something to say.

__  Formulate what your text contributes to an understanding of each of the doctrines on which it impinges.

__  If apparent contradictions with other biblical passages emerge, reevaluate your understanding of the text and, if necessary, of the other passages.

Survey a cross section of how others have resolved the apparent contradiction.

Modify your systematic theological synthesis in light of your best resolution of the problems.

Application (Chapter 10)

__  Determine as best as possible the originally intended application(s) of your text.

__  If a changed contemporary context makes the same application(s) impossible or uncertain, identify the cross-cultural theological principle(s) on which each application is based.

__  Climb the “ladder of abstraction” just as far as is necessary to uncover such principles but no further.

__  Look for different, contemporary applications of the cross-cultural principle(s) that accomplish the same goals as the originally intended applications.

 

Bibliography

Aland, Kurt, Barbara Aland, Johannes Karavidopoulos, Carlo M. Martini, and Bruce M. Metzger. Novum Testamentum Graece, 28th Ed. Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2012.

Allen, Roland. Missionary Methods: St. Paul’s or Ours. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1991.

Barrett, C. K. The Epistle to the Romans. Rev. ed. In Black’s New Testament Commentary. London: Continuum, 1991.

“Bible Hub: κατάκριμα.” Bible Hub. Accessed January 22, 2015. http://biblehub.com/greek/2631.htm.

Blomberg, Craig L., and Jennifer Foutz Markley. A Handbook of New Testament Exegesis. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2010.

Brannan, Rick, and Israel Loken. The Lexham Textual Notes on the Bible. In Lexham Bible Reference Series. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2014.

Charles, Robert Henry, ed. Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, vol. 2. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2004.

Comfort, Philip, Encountering the Manuscripts: An Introduction to New Testament Paleography & Textual Criticism. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman, 2005.

Comfort, Phillip W. New Testament Text and Translation Commentary. Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 2008.

Douglas, J. D. The New Greek –English Interlinear New Testament. Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 1990.

Epp, Eldon Jay. “Textual Criticism in the Exegesis of the New Testament, with an Excursus on Canon.” Handbook to Exegesis of the New Testament, vol. 25. New Testament Tools and Studies. New York, NY: Brill, 1997.

Fee, Gordon D. “Textual Criticism of the New Testament.” The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. Ed. Frank E. Gaebelein, vol. 1. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1976.

Friberg, Timothy, Barbara Friberg, and Neva F. Miller. Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament. Victoria, BC: Trafford Publishing, 2005.

Halcomb, T. Michael W. “Proconsul.” Ed. John D. Barry. Et al. The Lexham Bible Dictionary. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2014.

Holmes, Michael W. “The ‘Majority Text Debate’: New Form of an Old Issue.” Themelios 8No. 2 (September 1982).

Hultgren, Arland J. Paul’s Letter to the Romans: A Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2011.

Kruse, Colin G. Paul’s Letter to the Romans. Ed. D. A. Carson. In The Pillar New Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Apollos, 2012.

Lange, John Peter. Et al. A Commentary on the Holy Scriptures: Romans. Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2008.

Lukaszewski, Albert L. The Lexham Syntactic Greek New Testament Glossary. Lexham Press, 2007.

Mangum, Douglas. The Lexham Glossary of Literary Types. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2014.

Metzger, Bruce M. A Textual Commentary to the Greek New Testament, 2 Rev. ed. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2005.

Morris, Leon. “The Epistle to the Romans.” The Pillar New Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans, 1988.

Mounce, William D. Greek for the Rest of Us: The Essentials of Biblical Greek, Second Edition. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2013.

Omanson, Roger. A Textual Guide to the Greek New Testament: An Adaptation of Bruce M. Metzger’s Textual Commentary for the Needs of Translators. Bilingual ed. Stuttgart: Hendrickson Publishers, 2006.

“Oxford Dictionaries: condemnation.” Oxford Dictionaries. Accessed January 22, 2015. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/condemnation.

“Pharisees.” Logos Bible Software Factbook. Bellingham, WA: Faithlife Corporation, 2015.

Smith, Zachary G. “Alexandria.” Ed. John D. Barry. Et al. The Lexham Bible Dictionary. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2014.

“Teknia: κατάκριμα.” Teknia. Accessed January 22, 2015. https://www.teknia.com/greek-dictionary/katakrima.

The Cambridge Paragraph Bible: Of the Authorized English Version. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1873.

“Vine’s Expository Dictionary of NT Words: Condemn, Condemnation.” StudyLight. Accessed January 22, 2015. http://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/ved/view.cgi?n=532.

“Word By Word.” Exegetical Guide: Romans 8:1-8Logos Bible Software 6.1. Faithlife Corporation, 2015.

Bibliography of Illustrations

1000 Bible Images. Stuttgart, Germany: German Bible Society, 2009.

“Final Greetings in Roman (Ro 16:1-16).” Biblical People Diagrams. Bellingham, WA: Faithlife Corporation, 2009.


Endnotes

[1] Romans 8: 1-8, The Holy Bible: English Standard Version (Wheaton: Standard Bible Society, 2001).
 
[2] Leon Morris, “The Epistle to the Romans,” The Pillar New Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans; Inter-Varsity Press, 1988), 299.

[3] Craig L. Blomberg, and Jennifer Foutz Markley, A Handbook of New Testament Exegesis (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2010). This book describes, in detail, a 10-step, New Testament exigetical method (See Appendix D). It is this method that I will use to draw out the principles the author intended to relay, and will offer methods for applying them in everyday living.

[4] The original text is called “an author’s ‘autograph’ of a writing, that is, the textual form as it left the desk of Paul or of a writer of Mark or of the other portions of our New Testament.” As described in Eldon Jay Epp’s, “Textual Criticism in the Exegesis of the New Testament, with an Excursus on Canon,” Handbook to Exegesis of the New Testament, vol. 25, New Testament Tools and Studies (Leiden; New York: Brill, 1997), 89. “But the oldest text of all is the autograph.” Michael W. Holmes, “The ‘Majority Text Debate’: New Form of an Old Issue,” Themelios 8, No. 2 (September 1982): 15.

[5] Ibid., xii.

[6] C. K. Barrett, The Epistle to the Romans, Rev. ed., Black’s New Testament Commentary (London: Continuum, 1991), 1.

[7] Barrett, The Epistle to the Romans, 2.

[8] Philip Comfort, Encountering the Manuscripts: An Introduction to New Testament Paleography & Textual Criticism (Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman, 2005), 262.

[9] Zachary G. Smith, “Alexandria,” ed. John D. Barry et al., The Lexham Bible Dictionary (Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2014).

[10] Robert Henry Charles, ed., Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, vol. 2 (Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2004), 120.

[11] Gordon D. Fee, “Textual Criticism of the New Testament,” in The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, ed. Frank E. Gaebelein, vol. 1 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1976), 7.

[12] Blomberg and Markley, A Handbook of Exegesis, 12.

[13] Ibid., 13.

[14] Ibid.

[15] Ibid., 26.

[16] Ibid., 16.

[17] Kurt Aland, Barbara Aland, Johannes Karavidopoulos, Carlo M. Martini, and Bruce M. Metzger, Novum Testamentum Graece, 28th Edition (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 2012).

[18] William D. Mounce, Greek for the Rest of Us: The Essentials of Biblical Greek, Second Edition (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2013), 266.

[19] Eugene H. Peterson, The Message: The Bible in Contemporary Language (Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 2005).

[20] The Holy Bible: English Standard Version (Wheaton: Standard Bible Society, 2001).

[21] The Holy Bible: Holman Christian Standard Version (Nashville: Holman Bible Publishers, 2009).

[22] Peterson, The Message, 2005.

[23] See Appendix A.

[24] Rom 8:3-4, ESV.

[25] Rom 8:3-4, HCSB.

[26] Rom 8:3, MSG.

[27] Rom 8:3, ESV.

[28] Rom 8:3, MSG.

[29] Rom 1:1-4, HCSB.

[30] Phil 3:5-6, ESV.

[31] “Pharisees,” Logos Bible Software Factbook (Bellingham, WA: Faithlife Corporation, 2015).

[32] Morris, The Epistle to the Romans, 30.

[33] “Final Greetings in Roman (Ro 16:1-16),” Biblical People Diagrams (Bellingham, WA: Faithlife Corporation, 2009).

[34] Morris, The Epistle to the Romans, 24.

[35] T. Michael W. Halcomb, “Proconsul,” ed. John D. Barry et al., The Lexham Bible Dictionary (Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2014).

[36] 1000 Bible Images (Stuttgart, Germany: German Bible Society, 2009).

[37] Morris, The Epistle to the Romans, 5.

[38] Ibid., 6.

[39] Ibid.

[40] Roland Allen, Missionary Methods: St. Paul’s or Ours (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1991), 12.

[41] John Peter Lange et al., A Commentary on the Holy Scriptures: Romans (Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2008), 36.

[42] Colin G. Kruse, Paul’s Letter to the Romans, ed. D. A. Carson, The Pillar New Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Apollos, 2012), 8.

[43] Bruce M. Metzger, A Textual Commentary to the Greek New Testament, 2 Revised ed. (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2005).

[44] Roger Omanson, A Textual Guide to the Greek New Testament: An Adaptation of Bruce M. Metzger’s Textual Commentary for the Needs of Translators, Bilingual ed. (Stuttgart: Hendrickson Publishers, 2006).

[45] Phillip W. Comfort, New Testament Text and Translation Commentary (Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 2008).

[46] Rick Brannan and Israel Loken, The Lexham Textual Notes on the Bible, Lexham Bible Reference Series (Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2014), Ro 8:1.

[47] Douglas Mangum, The Lexham Glossary of Literary Types (Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2014).

[48] Arland J. Hultgren, Paul’s Letter to the Romans: A Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2011), 5.

[49] Brannan and Loken, The Lexham Textual Notes.

[50] J. D. Douglas, The New Greek -English Interlinear New Testament (Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 1990), 551.

[51] Timothy Friberg, Barbara Friberg, and Neva F. Miller, Analytical Lexicon of the Greek New Testament (Victoria, BC: Trafford Publishing, 2005), 218.

[52] “Teknia: κατάκριμα,” Teknia, accessed January 22, 2015, https://www.teknia.com/greek-dictionary/katakrima.

[53] “Bible Hub: κατάκριμα,” Bible Hub, accessed January 22, 2015, http://biblehub.com/greek/2631.htm.

[54] “Vine’s Expository Dictionary of NT Words: Condemn, Condemnation,” StudyLight, accessed January 22, 2015, http://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/ved/view.cgi?n=532.

[55] Friberg, Friberg, and Miller, Analytical Lexicon, 218.

[56] “Bible Hub: κατάκριμα,” Bible Hub, accessed January 22, 2015, http://biblehub.com/greek/2631.htm.

[57] “Oxford Dictionaries: condemnation,” Oxford Dictionaries, accessed January 22, 2015, http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/condemnation.

[58] Friberg, Friberg, and Miller, Analytical Lexicon, 218.

[59] Albert L. Lukaszewski, The Lexham Syntactic Greek New Testament Glossary (Lexham Press, 2007).

[60] Mounce, Greek for the Rest of Us, 18.

[61] Ibid., 55-77.

[62] The Cambridge Paragraph Bible: Of the Authorized English Version (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1873), Lk 8:14.
[63] The Holy Bible: English Standard Version (Wheaton: Standard Bible Society, 2001), Ro 8:1-8.

[64] The Holy Bible: Holman Christian Standard Version (Nashville: Holman Bible Publishers, 2009), Ro 8:1-8.

[65] Eugene H. Peterson, The Message: The Bible in Contemporary Language (Colorado Springs, CO: NavPress, 2005), Ro 8:1-8.

[66] This entire section is extracted from “Word By Word,” Exegetical Guide: Romans 8:1-8, Logos Bible Software 6.1 (Faithlife Corporation, 2015).

[67] Blomberg and Markley, A Handbook of Exegesis, 273–277.

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Living Hope and Masiphumelele


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IMG_3891

Celine and I, with our friends Chubaka and James from DRC, and Stefan from Cape Town, went to Living Hope and then to the township of Masiphumelele to visit people, pray for them, pray for their families, and their homes, and to bring the good news of Jesus Christ. The day was awesome, and the Holy Spirit was at work everywhere. The name of Jesus is so powerful, and is above every name. His Spirit penetrates hearts so deep in just a few minutes. He offers freedom, and those He sets free are truly free. Father God is good, and He cares for everyone, wherever they are. He goes to them and He meets them in their need. It is such a blessing to be able to participate in His glorious work.
Daily Post

How deep is your faith?


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He lay in the filthy street, with matted black hair and beard, lifeless, white-washed eyes, as if a cloud of milk were injected into the ocular fluid. His mouth was partially open, dried crust surrounding it, and his lips stuck to his teeth. I stopped to look at him, I prayed for him, and I wondered, not deeply, but fleeting thoughts about what must have brought him here to die. His level of faith challenged me, and sparked a journey to go deeper.

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My time hiding from Saul


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The dry air, and stifling heat were oppressive inside the tent; which drooped in places and had warn holes in others. The burlap canvas stunk of dirt and age. The holes let light pierce through in laser like beams that reflected on the floating, constantly moving dust particles; showing off the freshness of the air breathed, chokingly, into the lungs of each inhabitant. At the moment, I was the only soul living within the shrinking mess, cluttered with rucks and other gear left behind by the rest of the platoon. It was miserable. I swallowed the pills given to me by the doctor; two Percocet, two Vicodin, and two flexural, washing my worries and pain away with the water that carried them down my parched throat.

Thus begins my journey into hiding from Saul and seeking rest.

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The source of Hope and the hand which provides Healing


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In times when worlds are torn apart, when the infrastructure of nations are failing, when war is destroying societies, when sickness seems to have no cure we need hope, and people’s hearts, bodies, and minds need healing. Families, cities, nations, continents, and the earth need healing. Giving a hand or committing to a social program to aid in a single area only treats the symptom of the foundational problem. Destruction comes from the fallen heart of man. Each person’s selfish desire to survive, succeed, and protect family and friends so that their clan can flourish eventually treads on the rights and the dreams of other humans. If one area is treated the disease just grows stronger in another. To cure the sickness of this world the heart of men must change. How is this possible? Intellectual argument certainly won’t do it. There are hundreds of self-proclaimed experts continuously breathing out their opinions to the suffering and the poor. Opinions don’t feed people, they don’t clothe or shelter people. The only thing capable of penetrating the heart of any man is love. If we could allow ourselves to be compelled by love, our actions would provide selfless services to others. Love would allow us the grace to forgive. Forgiveness is not for those whom fault us, but is a gift of healing for our hearts. Love and forgiveness destroy the cancer called hate that grows in us. Hate destroys us, our lives, and poisons our relationships. Hate creates environments that must be ruled by fear. Love creates peace, understanding, selflessness, forgiveness, and kindness that seeks no return. Stress and anxiety are a major cause of illness. Love destroys anxiety. Be anxious for nothing. Fear is punishment. Love drives away fear and anxiety, and it lends peace. We cannot control others, but we can control ourselves. Discipline yourself to love. Return hate with kindness. Speak uplifting words to those around you. Love others and find healing. Love and foster hope. Seek the continuous source of love. The source is a wellspring of life. Those that find it are never thirsty.

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Check out…


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http://mycommunitynoticeboard.com

My Community Notice Board uses the Hedzup messenger application to inform you of various events going on in your community. Information about missing dogs and concerts can be delivered directly to you through your phone. Check it out.

My Community Notice Board keeps you informed of what’s

happening in your area by delivering the latest community news and alerts directly to your mobile phone, free of charge.

If you would like to become a contributor for your community then contact info@mycommunitynoticeboard.com

Daily Post

Battery System Update


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UPDATE: The Optima batteries have been exactly what we need. They were completely depleted during the shipping process and I was able to roll-start the truck and recharge both batteries and the auxiliary battery with only the alternator. I purchased a CTEK MXS 5.0 battery charger which I ran to the auxiliary batteries in the rear. I removed it and connected it to each battery individually and reconditioned them. The batteries work better than when I purchased them new. I reconnected the CTEK charger to the auxiliary battery. i use it when we stay at campsites that have power hookups.

I also purchased two 90-watt solar panels from Set Solar in Cape Town. The panels are made by set Solar and were half the cost of any I could find in hardware stores. I used their cables, connectors and charge controller and connected them the distribution panel which runs to the auxiliary battery. I had Lowveld Canvas in Nelspruit make a case for them so I could carry them on the roof rack. We spent 5 days at Beverlack (north of Cape Town) over the New Year. It was very hot and I ran the fridge for the entire time and only hooked the solar up during the day. The panels kept the batteries charged without any trouble. I am pleased with the solar setup we have, the battery charger, and the dual battery setup from IBS. My auxiliary is a 55 AH battery and in the future I may upgrade it to a slightly larger version.

Daily Post

Update


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A lot of things have happened in the past few months. Since leaving Morocco we headed back into Europe and visited family in Ireland and Germany. Ferries heading to Egypt closed so we decided to ship the truck. We utilized a clearing agent from Cape Town and shipped with a South African returning home from the UK. The truck arrived safely in Cape Town. We spent many months in South Africa traveling back and forth between Cape Town and Hoedspruit in the Northeast. After returning to Cape Town we took a trip to the United States so that I could take care of some medical issues. We are now back in South Africa, have travelled once again to Hoedspruit, and will be heading back to Cape Town mid-next month. Most of this time, besides site seeing has been spent traveling with various missions organizations, like Children’s Cup, and fostering new relationships with various people and organizations. We are at work rewriting our mission statement to addd clarity and specificity to it. With new partners and more clarity on planed for the future, our trip will have more purpose and backing.

A reminder that, if you wish to support our efforts, rather than direct donations, you may purchase applications from Hedzup and Syrepu, whom will provide a percentage to our mission.

Daily Post

Partnerships


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We have partnered with Hedzup and Syrepu to help with funding our effort. Through the purchase of their applications we receive support from each company. Please use their apps and help support our travel and aid throughout Africa. We are working with several organizations throughout the continent to bring hope and healing to those in need.

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The Tilbury drop and on to Cape Town


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We dropped the truck off in Tilbury, United Kingdom to be loaded into a 40′ High Cube container. She’ll be riding with Marius De Kock’s beautiful Land Cruiser “Sundance”. We had a previously scheduled flight to Cape Town so we left our truck with the shipping company on the 6th. Marius decided to bring his truck back the following Monday (the 9th), because that is the day the trucks will actually be loaded into the container.

Out truck with "Sundance"
Our truck with “Sundance”

Celine - Chris - the trucks

Celine and I flew out of London Gatwick on Emarites Airlines on the 6th. We arrived in Cape Town on the 7th, collected our rental car, and headed to the cottage we will be staying in until the truck arrives on the 7th of October. We received an email on the 9th from Marius letting us know the trucks were loaded successfully and he even sent a picture of ours on the ramp.

Crate loading in Tilbury for the long trip South.
Truck being loaded in Tilbury for the long trip South.